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Certifications & Guide

Diamond buying guide

When buying a diamond, consider all of its individual characteristics. It is helpful to know about the 4Cs – the universal diamond classification and grading system. Cut, color, clarity and carat are some of the traits that give a diamond its unique personality. Diamonds with higher 4Cs grades tend to be rarer, which can affect their price.

However, it is important to remember that the 4Cs are only four of the many characteristics of a diamond and that no two diamonds are the same, even if they share the same 4Cs. Every single diamond is a unique, inimitable miracle of nature.



Carat is a measure of weight. One carat (1 ct) equals 0.20 grams and is divided into 100 points (half a carat – 0.50 ct – diamond can be described as a 50 points diamond).



Cut refers to the shape of the diamond. Round, princess, cushion, oval, marquise, pear, and emerald are some of the most popular. Cut is also the factor most involved in the sparkle of a polished diamond. Cut is expressed in terms of the brilliance, fire and scintillation of a diamond. To maximize sparkle, a diamond must be cut to very specific parameters of angle and dimension with a strict attention to the polished finish of the diamond.



Diamonds occur naturally in all colors of the rainbow. Generally, the rarest diamonds exhibit no color at all (apart from fancy colors). Polished diamonds are graded for minute variations in depth of color, from ‘colorless’ to ‘light yellow’ and ‘light brown.’ This is universally known as the D (‘exceptional white’) to Z (‘tinted color’) color scale.



Clarity measures a diamond’s purity. Naturally-occurring features – known as inclusions – provide a special fingerprint within the diamond. Clarity refers to how free a diamond is from these tiny blemishes and inclusions.

Gold buying guide

Before you buy gold understand the difference between 24k, 22k and 18k gold. Karat (K) is basically a unit used to measure the purity of gold. The higher the karatage, the purer the gold.

  • 24 karat = 99.5% pure gold and above
  • 22 karat = 91.7 % gold
  • 18 karat = 75.0 % gold
  • 14 karat = 58.3 % gold
  • 12 karat = 50.0 % gold
  • 10 karat = 41.7 % gold

24K gold

24k gold is also called pure gold or 100 per cent gold. This means that all 24 parts in the gold are all pure gold without traces of any other metals. It is known to be 99.9 per cent pure and takes on a distinct bright yellow color. There is no higher form of gold than 24K and you must be aware of this before you go to a dealer who might tell you that they’re selling you 25K or 26K gold. Since this is the purest form of gold, it is naturally more expensive than 22K or 18K gold. However, this type of gold is lesser in density as compared to gold of a lower karatage which makes it soft and pliable. Hence, it is not suited for regular forms of jewellery. Coins and bars are mostly bought of 24K gold purity. 24K gold is also used in electronics and medical devices such as those used for children suffering from ear infections who are fitted with gold tympanostomy tubes that are known to improve aeration of the middle ear.

22K gold

22K gold jewellery implies that 22 parts of the jewellery amounts to gold and the balance 2 parts are some other metals. This kind of gold is commonly used in jewellery making. In 22K gold, of the 100 per cent, only 91.67 per cent is pure gold. The other 8.33 per cent comprises metals like silver, zinc, nickel and other alloys. It is this addition of metals that make the texture of gold harder thereby making the jewellery durable. However, you must know that although this can be used to make plain gold jewellery, 22K gold isn’t preferable for diamonds and heavily studded jewellery.

18K gold

18K gold is 75 per cent gold mixed with 25 per cent of other metals like copper or silver etc. Usually studded jewellery and other diamond jewellery is made in 18K gold. This kind of gold is less expensive compared to 24K and 22K. This one has a slightly dull gold colour. Recognizing 18K jewellery is rather simple – you will see the item stamped with 18K, 18Kt, 18k or a variation similar to these. At times, 18K gold is marked by 750, 0.75 or a stamp similar to these in order to symbolise that the jewellery contains 75 per cent gold.

How is gold fineness calculated?

In the West the karat is expressed in fineness. For e.g. 24 k gold is expressed as 1000 parts out of 1000 pure or fineness 1.000. 22 k is expressed as 22 divided by 24, multiplied by 1000 which will give you a fineness of 0.9166, 21 karat is 21 divided by 24 multiplied by 1000 which is 0.875 fineness and similarly 18 karat is 0.750 fineness.

Various colours of gold

24 karat gold has the natural warm colour of pure gold and its colour cannot be changed without changing the purity of gold to less than 24 k. Other colours of gold can be made by changing the composition of the alloy in the making of the jewellery.

  • Pink or Rose gold - Pink gold is made by adding more copper in the alloy composition of the gold
  • Green Gold – Gold is given a green colour by adding more of zinc and silver
  • White Gold – the white colour of gold is achieved by adding nickel or palladium
  • A surface colour can also be given to gold articles by electro-plating. However this can only be a surface finish and will be worn off over a period of time.




The BIS hallmark is a hallmarking system for gold as well as silver jewellery sold in India certifying to the purity of the metal. It certifies that the piece of jewellery conforms to a set of standards laid by the Bureau of Indian Standards, the national standards organization of India.

Gold purity grade shows how pure the gold is.

999 958 916 875 750 708 585 417 375 333
24 carat – Pure Gold 23 carat 22 carat 21 carat 18 carat 17 carat 14 carat 10 carat 9 carat 8 carat

Under Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Act, hallmarking agency certifies gold on the basis of Indian standards. In other words, gold jewelry will be evaluated and tested at official hallmarking centers and then certified that the metal conforms to the national and international standard of fineness and purity.

No one can determine the purity of gold touching or looking at it. Even experienced jewellers can’t assess the purity of gold without proper evaluation. Two gold ornaments may be of same design and style, but they can greatly vary in value due to the difference in gold purity. A hallmark certification can resolve all such issues. It can provide all the necessary details and confirm the purity of the gold.

Now, imagine that you are planning to sell your any gold ornament . Note that self-certification by a jeweller won’t help if you decide to exchange your gold at another jeweller. But if you are armed with a hallmark certification, you won’t have to worry. Hallmark spells trust and confidence in the gold jewellery industry. Not just buyers, even sellers accept it.



IGI Diamond Reports give an accurate assessment of a diamond's cut, color, clarity and carat weight according to strict international standards.

An IGI Certificate clearly discloses the details of any item it accompanies, providing confidence for both buyer and seller.

The value of a precious stone is determined by its gemological makeup, natural rarity and finished quality. Diamonds and gemstones of similar appearance can have important differences in value. Even experts need powerful analytic tools to detect synthetics, treatments and enhancement processes.

With more locations around the globe than any other laboratory, IGI is the world's most trusted name for the expert and impartial grading of diamonds, gemstones and jewelry. Gemstones should only change hands when accompanied by a certificate attesting to quality. Regardless of location or marketplace, an authentic IGI Laboratory Report is the common language of trust and confidence in the gemological world, and should be considered an essential part of any transaction. IGI take this responsibility very seriously.

Note: When ever you buy gold or diamond make sure it is Hallmarked by certified Hallmarking Agencies.